The Liquefied Natural Gas plant in Sabetta will be constructed of several hundred different modules, which are built at different locations around the world. These modules weigh up to 10,000 tons and will be gathered in a European harbour before shipment to Yamal. It will take about four years to deliver them all to the Arctic area. Due to the harsh conditions found in the area with temperatures down to minus 40 degrees Celsius for part of the year, no ordinary vessel is able to take care of this kind of transportation. Aker Arctic has developed two module carriers, which can operate year-round in delivering the modules to Yamal. These carriers are different from anything designed and constructed earlier. They are typical heavy cargo ships with a wide cargo deck, but designed for exceptional ice circumstances as they need to be able to move in the Gulf of Ob round the year in order to keep the construction of the LNG plant on schedule. The ice class is therefore Polar Class 3.
Arctic Module Carrier Audax & Pugnax
Hostile Arctic climate and difficult geographical conditions have required the use of unique technologies to work in the Sakhalin oil and gas fields, located off the northeast coast of Sakhalin Island.
The supply vessels are designed for extreme environmental conditions in the Sakhalin area. In addition to meeting the year-round, multifarious re-supply needs of the platform, the specified range of capabilities that had to be encompassed by the supply vessels included firefighting, ice management in the sense of protecting the platform structure from ice, oil spill response, standby, rescue services, and towing.
The main duty of the vessels is to supply between land bases and the offshore drilling and production sites. The vessels are able to safely convey and transfer cargo on deck and bulk cargo underdeck in all seasons. The vessels will also be operating in thick drifting ice for ice management and icebreaking duties in temperatures as cold as minus 35 C°. The icebreaking capability of the vessels is extremely high, being able to proceed independently in 1.5 meter thick ice. The vessels are outfitted for emergency evacuation, rescue and fire fighting operations, oil spill response and platform overboard working and helicopter operations.
The first unit is the FESCO Sakhalin, purchased by Sovcomflot from Far Eastern Shipping Company in 2010 and renamed SCF Sakhalin.
Russia – Icebreaker Fesco Sakhalin
Russia – Icebreaker SCF Sakhalin
SCF Vitus Bering and second-of-class SCF Aleksei Chirikov are upgraded versions of FESCO Sakhalin. While the main dimensions and hull form of the Vitus Bering type are nearly identical to the earlier vessel, the various modifications have included a covered foredeck, to better protect the mooring gear and the crew from the elements.
Russia – Icebreaker Vitus Bering & Alexey Chirikov
The 94 m research vessel, RV Investigator, is available for multidisciplinary research in the oceans and seas around Australia.
RV Investigator was commissioned in 2014-15 to replace the 66m Southern Surveyor. Investigator has a greater range and can carry more scientific personnel than Southern Surveyor, enabling research to be carried out to the Antarctic ice-edge.
The Marine National Facility is based at CSIRO’s Marine Laboratories in Hobart, Tasmania, which is also home port for the research vessel.
The RV Investigator is able to accommodate up to 40 scientists, go to sea for up to 60 days at a time and spend up to 300 days of the year at sea on research voyages. Special features of the ship are a “gondola”, similar to a winged keel, mounted 1.2 m below the hull, and two drop keels (which can be lowered to a maximum of 4m below the hull), to carry scientific instruments below the layer of microbubbles created by the movement of the ship’s hull through the water. Such instrumentation includes acoustic mappers and a pelagic sediment profiler to produce maps of the sea floor. The hull and the machinery of the ship have been designed to operate as quietly as possible to enhance its scientific capabilities.
CSIRO Research Vessel Investigator
MPSV07 class vessels are a series of four icebreaking salvage vessels, which were delivered between 2012 and 2015. The lead vessels of Project MPSV07, Spasatel Karaev, was put into operation on 25 October 2012; the second ship, Spasatel Kavdeikin – on 19 July 2013, the third Ship, Spasatel Zaborshchikov – on 17 December 2013. The fourth ship, Spasatel Demidov, was ordered later separately and therefore was commissioned two years later than the 3rd ship – on 4 December 2015.
Multipurpose salvage vessel with unlimited navigation area of high ice class is intended for search and assistance to vessels in distress; for search, rescue and evacuation of people; for refloat from ground damaged vessels and their towing; fire fighting on vessels, fire fighting of fuel burning on water; oil spills response; performance of deep-water diving operations at the depth up to 300 m; survey of a sea-bottom and damaged objects on depth down to 1000 m
The vessels are 73m long and deadweight at maximum draft is approximately 1,171t. The vessels has a sea endurance of 20 days.
Multi Purpose Salvage Vessel MPSV 07
MPSV06 class vessels are a series of three icebreaking salvage vessels, one of which is being built in Russia and two that have been ordered from the German shipbuilder Nordic Yards Wismar. The first vessel of the class, Spasatel Petr Gruzinskiy, was reportedly laid down at Amur Shipbuilding Plant in Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Russia, already in 2010 but is not yet operative. The second and third vessels, Beringov Proliv and Murman, were laid down in November 2013 at Nordic Yards and launched in September 2014. Both ships were delivered on December 2015.
The ice class of the vessels, assigned by the Russian Maritime Register of Shipping, is Icebreaker. They have two large cranes, for salvage, and a landing platform for helicopters. They are capable of operating remotely operated underwater vehicles, and have decompression facilities sufficient to support a team of deep divers.
Multi Purpose Salvage Vessel MPSV06
Aiviq is an American icebreaking anchor handling tug supply vessel (AHTS) owned by Edison Chouest Offshore (ECO). The $200 million vessel was built in 2012 by North American Shipbuilding in Larose, Louisiana and LaShip in Houma, Louisiana. She has been chartered by Royal Dutch Shell to support oil exploration and drilling in the Chukchi Sea off Alaska. The primary task of the vessel is towing and laying anchors for drilling rigs, but she is also equipped for oil spill response.
On 27 December 2012, while Aiviq was towing the mobile offshore drilling unit Kulluk off the coast of Kodiak Island, Alaska, the towing line between the icebreaker and the drilling rig parted due to a mechanical failure of the towing shackle. Shortly after the tow had been regained, the main engines of Aiviq failed and the vessel lost propulsion power in 20-foot (6 m) seas. In the following morning, power was successfully restored on one of the four main engines and the vessel was able to hold position in the heavy weather. United States Coast Guard cutter USCGC Alex Haley was dispatched to the scene to monitor the situation.
On 29 December, the Unified Command authorized the drilling rig to drop its anchor to slow its drift towards the coast and ordered the Coast Guard to evacuate the 18 crew members on Kulluk by helicopter as a precaution. Sikorsky HH-60 Jayhawk helicopters operated by the Coast Guard also delivered essential equipment parts to Aiviq and later power was restored on all four engines.
USA – AHTS Aiviq
GSF Explorer, formerly USNS Hughes Glomar Explorer (T-AG-193), is a deep-sea drillship platform initially built for the United States Central Intelligence Agency Special Activities Division secret operation Project Azorian to recover the sunken Soviet submarine K-129, lost in April 1968.
Hughes Glomar Explorer (HGE), as the ship was called at the time, was built between 1973 and 1974, by Sun Shipbuilding and Drydock Co. Hughes told the media that the ship’s purpose was to extract manganese nodules from the ocean floor.
The Hughes Glomar Explorer employed a large mechanical claw, which Lockheed officially titled the “Capture Vehicle” but affectionately called Clementine. The capture vehicle was designed to be lowered to the ocean floor, grasp around the targeted submarine section, and then lift that section into the ship’s hold.